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Module 4: Curriculum management and adaptation
In the lead up to the 1994 elections, there was immense debate within and between the ANC and COSATU as well as private sector groups and community groups about education reform.
- The White Paper on Education and Training (DOE, 1995) called for the transformation of the school curriculum and formation of democratic structures to develop this curriculum (DOE, 2000).
- Following on the White Paper on Education and Training, several discussion documents were developed by the National Department of Education. The most notable one that began to moot outcomes in education.
The introduction of OBE was not only an attempt to change the education system but also for the purpose of transforming society in the sense that parents and/ or learners’ guardians had to own their children’s education and have a say and contribute towards it as much as possible. Education was transformed into something worthwhile to all citizens especially learners at schools. It was adopted as the approach that would:
- enable articulation between education and training,
- recognition of prior learning
- increase mobility for learners.
Policy reviews have become common practice in many developing countries. Their functions vary from country to country. Generally, policy reviews can serve the following functions:
- to provide accountability mechanisms for governments and/or donor agencies with vested interests in a policy initiative or programme.
- to enhance existing policy; and
- to establish a new policy
The South African government, since 1994, has introduced policies and mechanisms aimed at redressing the legacy of a racially and ethnically fragmented, dysfunctional, and unequal education system inherited from apartheid. This included setting up a new governance system which encouraged local and community participation in schools through school governing bodies (SGBs) comprising of teachers, learners, parents and other relevant stakeholders. There were new norms and standards for school funding and professional development of educators. The National Qualifications Framework was introduced and there was a radical departure from apartheid education through an outcomes-based curriculum reform, known as Curriculum 2005.
The vision for education that emerged after 1994 was to integrate education and training into a system of lifelong learning. South Africa embarked on radical education reforms.
- Lectures 15
- Quizzes 15
- Skill level NQF Level 6
- Language English
- Students 2
- Assessments Self
Section 1: Information about this Module
The main focus of the learning in this knowledge module is to build an understanding of the national curriculum, its changing nature and the principles of inclusion, the approaches of teaching and learning, quality assurance strategies for the implementation of the school curriculum to offer effective leadership and management of the overall curriculum delivery to ensure improved teaching and learning practices in the school. Topic elements to be covered include: 134501001-KM-02, Curriculum management and adaptation for holistic development of learners, NQF Level 6, Credits 12 KM-02-KT01: Curriculum delivery and management.
Section 2: The Curriculum
Managing teaching and learning in a school is partly about curriculum delivery. In its Policy Framework for Education and Training, the ANC (1994) stated that the curriculum had to be understood as more than just a syllabus. The curriculum referred to: • all teaching and learning activities that take place • it included the aims and objectives of education • what is taught • how it is arranged into different learning areas • the skills and processes that are included • strategies of learning and teaching • different forms of assessments • how the curriculum is serviced and resourced • how it reflects the needs and interests of those it serves including the learners, teachers, community, the nation, the employers, and the economy Curriculum delivery is based on input, process, and output. As teachers in the classroom we need to carefully consider how we are going to deliver the curriculum to learners with different needs or with barriers to learning.
- General overview of the national curriculum, curriculum change and adaptation
- QUIZ 1: The Curriculum
- Functions, roles, responsibilities and accountabilities of the school principal, School Governing Body, Head of Departments and other structures for curriculum planning and implementation
- QUIZ 2: School Organisation and Curriculum Delivery
- CASE STUDY 1
Section 3: Inclusion
South Africa adopted an inclusive education policy to address barriers to learning in the education system. However, the implementation of this policy is hampered by the lack of teachers’ skills and knowledge in differentiating the curriculum to address a wide range of learning needs. Inclusivity should become a central part of the organisation, planning, and teaching at each school. This can only happen if all teachers have a sound understanding of how to recognise and address barriers to learning, and how to plan for diversity.
Section 4: Approaches, Methodologies and Theories of Teaching and Learning
Before considering how the implementation, moderation and evaluation of the curriculum can improve the quality of learner outcomes, let us first re-examine some of the universal fundamentals of teaching and learning i.e., the theories of learning, the inductive and deductive teaching approaches, different teaching methods.
Section 5: Quality Assurance and Monitoring the Quality of Teaching and Learning
‘Quality assurance involves the systematic review of educational provision to maintain and improve its quality, equity and efficiency. It encompasses school self-evaluation, external evaluation (including inspection), the evaluation of teachers and school leaders, and student assessments.’ The National Development Plan (NDP) – Vision for 2030 emphasizes the importance of enhancing accountability in the education sector and promotes the importance of mutual accountability between schools and communities for their overall improvement on key indicators so as to enhance teaching and learning in schools. Improvement in teaching and learning requires a radical approach underpinned by quality and efficiency at school and district level.
- Curriculum implementation, moderation, evaluation and monitoring process and reporting
- Quality assurance strategies and implementation
- QUIZ 7: Quality Assurance
- Monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of assessment practices
- QUIZ 8: Monitoring the Quality of Teaching and Learning
- Data-driven interventions and benefits for teaching and learning
- QUIZ 9: Data Driven Interventions
- CASE STUDY 2
Section 6: School Improvement
School improvement is a systematic way of planning school improvement and tracking it over time. It is a “road map that sets out the changes a school needs to make to improve the level of learner achievement and shows how and when these changes will be made.”
Section 7: Assessment and Summary
Assessment is a continuous planned process of identifying, gathering, and interpreting information about the performance of learners. It involves four steps: generating and collecting evidence of achievement; evaluating evidence; recording the findings and using information to understand and thereby assist the learner’s development to improve the process of learning and teaching.